Immunohistochemistry Stains

The ARUP Immunohistochemistry Laboratory performs more than 175 stains on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues/cellblocks. These stains are used to detect the presence, abundance, and localization of specific proteins to aid in determining the direction of differentiation in neoplasms with similar morphology as well as to provide prognostic or therapeutic information, among other applications.

This lab is pathologist oriented, providing a stain and return service only, without interpretation, to our client pathologists to assist in their diagnostic studies. Most stains are returned the next day. The available stains are listed under the Stain and Return Immunohistochemistry tab. If interpretation is needed, please order a consultation.

To order a surgical pathology consultation, please use test code 2013263 Consultation, Surgical Pathology or 2013258 Consultation, Hematopathology. For more information, call (801)581-2507. Please include pertinent clinical history and surgical pathology report.

The Immunohistochemistry Laboratory has a menu of immunohistochemistry tests for which we will provide interpretation by one of our ARUP faculty pathologists. A list of these tests can be found under the Immunohistochemistry Tests tab. The ARUP Immunohistochemistry Laboratory is an NSABP-approved laboratory for the testing of breast markers.
All A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Test # Test Name Test Keywords Test Description
2003439 Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase 1 (ALK-1) by Immunohistochemistry Sarcoma, T/NK-Cell Lymphomas, B-Cell Lymphomas, Tumor Markers, Non-small cell carcinoma, lung, malignant rhabdoid tumor Anaplastic lymphoma kinase 1:
  • Reacts with the NPM-ALK fusion protein expressed by t(2;5) positive anaplastic large cell lymphomas
2003442 B Cell Specific Octamer Binding Protein-1 (BOB-1) by Immunohistochemistry B-Cell Lymphomas, Tumor Markers B-cell Oct-binding protein 1; OBF-1:
  • Expressed in spleen and peripheral blood leukocytes, Reed-Sternberg cells, B-cells, and germinal centers
  • Aids in differentiating Hodgkin lymphomas and B-cell lymphomas
2004513 BCL-2 by Immunohistochemistry Follicular lymphoma, Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, B-Cell Lymphomas B-cell lymphoma-2:
  • Proto-oncogene
  • Over expression increases life span in B-cells
  • Aids in identifying colorectal adenomas, carcinomas
  • Distinguishes follicular lymphoma from reactive follicles
2003457 BCL-6 by Immunohistochemistry B-Cell Lymphomas, Tumor Markers
  • Transcription factor important in germinal center formation
  • Aids in identifying large cell lymphomas, Burkitt lymphoma, and Hodgkin lymphoma (nodular, lymphocyte predominant)
2003466 BF-1 by Immunohistochemistry T/NK-Cell Lymphomas, Tumor Markers Beta framework 1; BF-1:
  • Recognizes T-cell receptor (TCR) beta subunit
  • Aids in characterizing alpha-beta T-cell receptors from T-cell clones or polyclonal populations of T-cells
  • Aids in diagnosing T-cell lineage neoplasms
2003523 CD10 (CALLA) by Immunohistochemistry Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL), Follicular lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, B-Cell Lymphomas, Tumor Markers
  • Common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA)
  • Aids in identifying lymphoblastic lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and CML
  • Aids in differential diagnosis of small B-cell lymphomas and subtyping of lymphoblastic leukemias
2003806 CD117 (c-Kit) by Immunohistochemistry Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GIST), Lung Cancer, Breast Cancer, Melanoma, Mast Cell Disease, Germ Cell Tumor of Testes and Ovary, Brain Tumors, Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Acute Myeloid Leukemia, (AML), Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPN), Tumor Markers
  • Proto-oncogene
  • Inhibitor of apoptotic cell death
  • Aids in identifying small and large cell lung carcinomas, GIST, AML, CML (in blast crisis), breast carcinomas, glioblastomas and melanomas
2003809 CD123 by Immunohistochemistry
  • A marker of dendric cell precursors: is expressed by plasmactoid monocytes, dendric cells, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells.
2003812 CD138 (Syndecan-1) by Immunohistochemistry Plasma Cell Dyscrasias, B-Cell Lymphomas, Tumor Markers
  • Transmembrane heparin sulphate glycoprotein
  • Expressed by normal lymphoid cells, IgG plasma cells, Pre B-cells and immature B-cells
  • Co-receptor for differentiation growth factors
  • Differentiates squamous cell carcinomas, postgerminal center B-cells, and plasma cells
  • Expressed in plasma cells of CLL, plasmacytoid lymphomas, and myelomas
2003526 CD14 by Immunohistochemistry Acute Myelogenous Leukemia, Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia, Tumor Markers
  • Acts as a co-receptor for the detection of bacterial lipolysaccharide (LPS).
  • Expressed on cells of myelo-monocytic llineage, including monocytes, macrophages and Langerhan's cells.
2003529 CD15, Leu M1 by Immunohistochemistry Hodgkin Lymphoma, Acute Myelogenous Leukemia, Mesothelioma
  • Hapten X
  • Present in Reed-Sternberg cells, 90% granulocytes, 30-60% monocytes
  • Absent from lymphocytes
  • Expressed by some non-Hodgkin lymphomas, mycosis fungoides and some leukemias
2003815 CD163 by Immunohistochemistry
  • Is restricted in its expression to the monocytic/macrophage lineage.
  • Is present on all circulating monocytes and most tissue macrophages except those found in mantle zone and germinal centers of lymphoid follicles, interdigitating reticulum cells and Langerhan’s cells.
2005114 CD19 by Immunohistochemistry Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Tumor Markers, B-Cell Lymphomas CD19:
  • CD19 is to be used in a panel of antibodies to aid in the characterization of B-cell malignancies. The pattern or reactivity is membranous.
  • In normal tissues, the CD19 (clone BT51E) detects protein expressed on the membrane of cells of the B-cell lineage. Staining is seen in the mantle zones and germinal centers of tonsil and tissue infiltrating B-lymphocytes.
  • CD19 is detected in hematological malignancies including: 95% of B-cell lymphomas including small lymphocytic lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, marginal zone lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, T-cell rich B-cell lymphoma, and lymphoblastic lymphoma; 75% of B-cell leukemias including small lymphocytic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and Hairy cell leukemia.
2003502 CD1a by Immunohistochemistry Langerhan cell histiocytosis, T-ALL
  • Non-polymorphic MHC class I-related cell surface glycoprotein
  • Expressed by interdigitating reticulum cells, cortical thymocytes, thymomas, langerhans cells and Langerhans histiocytosis cells (histiocytosis X)
  • Aids in identifying some T-cell lymphomas and leukemias
2003532 CD20, L26 by Immunohistochemistry B-Cell Lymphomas, Plasma cell dyscrasias, Tumor Markers
  • Expressed on B-cell precursors and mature B-cells, but lost following differentiation into plasma cells
  • B-lymphocytes: germinal center cells, mantle zone lymphocytes, and interfollicular lymphocytes, but not T-cells, plasma cells, or histiocytes
  • Aids in identifying common acute lymphoblastic leukemia, pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia, CLL, prolymphocytic leukemia, hairy cell leukemia, lymphoma cell leukemia, B-cell lymphomas, including Burkitt, Waldenstrom, and immunoblastic B-cell
  • May show some membrane staining of Reed-Sternberg cells in Hodgkin lymphoma
2012844 CD200 by Immunohistochemistry
  • Primarily aids the distinction between CLL/SLL and mantle cell lymphoma where CD200 is usually positive in CLL/SLL and negative in mantle cell lymphoma.
  • CD200 is also positive in other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders.
2003535 CD21 (Dendritic Cell) by Immunohistochemistry T-Cell Lymphomas, B-Cell Lymphomas, follicular dendritic cells, follicular dendritic sarcoma
  • C3D receptor, CR2, and EBV receptor
  • Expressed by follicular dendritic cells, mature B-cells, some types of epithelial cells, reactive hyperplasia, and plasma cells
  • Low expression on T-cell ALL cells, subset of normal thymocytes and mature T-cells, lymphocytes in the mantle zone, sinus lining cells, and monocytoid B-cells
  • Aids in identifying B-cell CLL, follicular lymphoma, low-grade MALT-type B-cell lymphoma, primary salivary gland and gastric lymphoma, T-cell and histiocyte-rich B-cell lymphoma, angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma, follicular dendritic sarcoma and some Reed-Sternberg cells not expressing other B- or T-cell-associated markers.
2003541 CD23 by Immunohistochemistry Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
  • Expressed by activated B-lymphocytes, activated macrophages, and a portion of follicular dendritic cells
  • Aids in differentiating small lymphocytic lymphoma (+) and mantle cell lymphoma (-)
2003544 CD25 by Immunohistochemistry Mast Cell Disease, Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPN), Hairy cell leukemia, Sezary syndrome
  • Mediates helper, suppressor, and cytotoxic functions
  • Expressed on T-cells, HTLV-1-transformed T- and B-cells, EVB-transformed B-cells, myeloid precursors, and oligodendrocytes
  • Aids in study of inflammatory and malignant conditions
2003508 CD3 by Immunohistochemistry T-cell lymphomas, T-cell leukemias, Tumor Markers
  • Binds to the non-glycosylated epsilon chain of CD3 complex
  • Present in T-lymphocytes, thymocytes/early thymocytes
  • Expressed on normal and neoplastic T-cells
2003547 CD30 (Ki-1) by Immunohistochemistry Hodgkin lymphoma, T-cell lymphoma, B-Cell Lymphomas, Tumor Markers, solitary fibrous tumor, sarcoma
  • Ki-1 positive lymphoma
  • Ber-H2
  • Expressed by activated B- and T-lymphocytes, Reed-Sternberg cells
  • Aids in identifying Hodgkin lymphoma, lymphomatoid papulosis, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, some peripheral pleomorphic T-cell lymphomas (both HTLV-1 positive and negative) including those of angioimmunoblastic type and Lennert type and embryonal carcinoma
2003550 CD31 by Immunohistochemistry Vascular neoplasms
  • Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule
  • Expressed by endothelial cells
  • Glycoprotein in platelets
  • Aids in evaluating vascularization in normal and neoplastic tissue and demonstrating endothelial cellderived tumors
2003556 CD34, QBEnd/10 by Immunohistochemistry B-ALL, T-ALL, Acute myelogenous leukemia, MDS, Tumor Markers
  • Human progenitor cell antigen
  • Present in immature hematopoietic cells and vascular endothelial cells
  • Expressed by some acute myeloid leukemias, undifferentiated leukemias, and acute lymphoblastic leukemias
2003559 CD35 by Immunohistochemistry Sarcoma
  • Mediates neutrophil and monocte phagocytosis of particles coated with C3b and or C4b
  • Shows strong staining pattern on follicular dendritic cells
  • Aids in characterization of histocytic/dendritic cell neoplasms and follicular dendritic cell sarcomas
2003511 CD4 by Immunohistochemistry Sézary Syndrome, T-Cell Lymphomas, Tumor Markers
  • Present on a subset of helper/inducer T-cells, thymocytes, and at a lower level on monocytes
  • Aids in identifying cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, including mycosis fungoides and HTLV-1-associated adult T-cell leukemia and lymphoma
2003565 CD42b by Immunohistochemistry Acute myelogenous leukemia, megakaryocytes
  • Platelet glycoprotein Ib
  • Expressed on platelets and megakaryocytes in bone marrow
  • Aids in phenotyping megakaryoblastic leukemias
  • Absence of CD42b on platelets may indicate Bernard-Soulier syndrome
2003568 CD43, L60 (Leu 22) by Immunohistochemistry T/NK-Cell Lymphomas, B-Cell Lymphomas
  • Expressed on T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, and granulocytes
  • Aids in identifying cells of lymphoid lineage and T-cell lymphomas, and mantle cell lymphomas
2003571 CD44 by Immunohistochemistry
  • Expression is lower in Burkitt lymphoma than diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, although we don’t routinely use this clinically
2003574 CD45 by Immunohistochemistry Non-Hodgkin lymphomas, Hodgkin Lymphomas, Tumor Markers Leukocyte common antigen:
  • Expressed on the majority of leukocytes
  • Aids in differentiating lymphoid from non-lymphoid neoplasms
2003514 CD5 by Immunohistochemistry T-Cell Lymphomas, B-Cell Lymphomas, Tumor Markers
  • Expressed in T-lymphocytes, thymocytes and subset of B-lymphocytes in lymph nodes
  • Aids in identifying T-cell leukemias, most B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias (B-CLL) and mantle cell lymphomas/T- and B-cell lymphomas
2003586 CD52 (CAMPATH-1) by Immunohistochemistry B-cell lymphomas, B-cell leukemias, T-cell leukemias
  • Expressed by lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, thymocytes, and macrophages
  • Expressed by most lymphoid-derived malignancies
  • Variable expression on myeloma cell
2003589 CD56 (NCAM) by Immunohistochemistry Brain Tumors, Sarcoma , Rhabdomyosarcomas, T/NK-Cell Lymphomas, Plasma Cell Dyscrasias, Tumor Markers, Lung Cancer Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM):
  • Expressed on natural killer cells and most neuroectodermal tissues
  • Retinoblastoma, medulloblastoma, astrocytoma, neuroblastoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma
2003592 CD57 by Immunohistochemistry T/NK-Cell Lymphomas, Tumor Markers Leu-7, HNK1:
  • Expressed by a subset of natural killer cells and some T-lymphocytes
  • Reacts with myelin-associated glycoprotein in neuroectodermal tissue
  • Aids in identifying small cell lung carcinoma, NK lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity, AIDS and AIDS-related complex (ARC), NK and T-cell subset tumors and neural tissue neoplasms
2003595 CD61 (Platelet Glycoprotein IIIA) by Immunohistochemistry Acute myelogenous leukemia, megakaryocytes Platelet glycoprotein IIIa:
  • Expressed on platelets and megakaryocytes
  • Specific for cells showing megakaryoblastic differentiation
  • Aids in identifying megakaryocytic/megakaryoblastic leukemias
2003598 CD68, KP1 by Immunohistochemistry Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), Monocytes, Histiocytes, Tumor Markers KP-1:
  • Expressed by Macrophages, blood monocytes, mast cells, and the cell population known as "plasmacytoid T-cells" in reactive lymph nodes
  • Strong to moderate staining in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), true histiocytic neoplasia, melanoma, and some B-cell neoplasms (usually small lymphocytic lymphoma [SLL]) and weak staining in hairy cell leukemia
  • Weak staining in hairy cell leukemia
2003517 CD7 by Immunohistochemistry Sézary Syndrome, T/NK-Cell Lymphomas, Tumor Markers
  • Earliest T-cell-specific antigen to be expressed in lymphocytes
  • Present in thymocytes , most peripheral T-lymphocyte, most natural killer cells
  • Aids in identifying T-cell lymphomas and leukemias of T-cell origin
2003800 CD79A by Immunohistochemistry Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL), Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), B-Cell Lymphomas, Tumor Markers
  • Expressed on pre B-cells until plasma cell stage
  • Found as intracellular component in plasma cells
  • Aids in identifying acute leukemia of precursor B-cell type (common ALL), B-cell lymphomas and some myelomas
2003520 CD8 by Immunohistochemistry T-Cell Lymphomas, Tumor Markers
  • Expressed on a cytotoxic/suppressor subset of T-lymphocyte natural killer cells, thymocytes, and on a subpopulation of null cells
  • Aids in identifying T-cell lymphomas/leukemias
2003842 Cyclin D1, SP4 by Immunohistochemistry Head and Neck Cancer, Tumor Markers, Mantle cell lymphoma, B-Cell Lymphomas
  • B-cell lymphoma-1
  • Mantle cell lymphoma, various carcinomas (strong staining in carcinomas), multiple myelomas, some parathyroid adenomas, and parathyroid carcinomas
2003878 Factor XIIIa by Immunohistochemistry Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • megakaryocytes, and fibroblast-like mesenchymal or histiocytic cells present in the placenta, uterus, and prostate
  • Present in monocytes, macrophages, and dermal dendritic cells
  • Aids in differentiating dermatofibromas, dermatosarcoma protuberans, and desmoplastic malignant melanomas
  • Positive in capillary hemangioblastomas, hemangioendotheliomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, hemangiopericytomas, xanthogranulomas, glomus tumors, and meningiomas
2003908 Glycophorin A by Immunohistochemistry
  • Expressed in erythroid cells
  • Identifies M6 subtype of acute myeloblastic leukemia, erythroleukemia, and erythroblasts
2007173 Granzyme B by Immunohistochemistry
  • Granzyme B has been found to be expressed in the neoplastic counterparts of cytolytic CTL and NK-cells, therefore, Granzyme B may be a valuable tool in the diagnosis of T-cell/NK-cell lymphomas with cytotoxic phenotypes.
  • High percentages of cytotoxic T-cells have been shown to be an unfavorable prognostic indicator in Hodgkin’s disease.
2003860 Hairy Cell Leukemia, DBA.44 by Immunohistochemistry B-Cell Lymphomas
  • Developed against the B-cell antigen
  • Aids in identifying Hairy cell leukemia (particularly "hairy" cytoplasmic processes), some follicular center cell lymphomas, high grade B-cell lymphomas, splenic lymphomas with villous lymphocytes
2003957 Immunoglobulin A (IgA) by Immunohistochemistry
  • Alpha chains of Ig
2003960 Immunoglobulin D (IgD) by Immunohistochemistry
  • Delta chains of IgD
2003963 Immunoglobulin G (IgG) by Immunohistochemistry
  • Gamma chains of IgG
2003966 Immunoglobulin M (IgM) by Immunohistochemistry
  • Mu chains of IgM
2003975 MUM1/IRF4 by Immunohistochemistry B-Cell Lymphomas, Hodgkin lymphoma, Tumor Markers
  • Transcription factor required for B- and T-cell development
  • Expressed in a subset of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and used in cell of origin classification
  • Aids in the differential diagnosis of PEL among other lymphomas involving the serous body cavities
2003981 Kappa Light Chains by Immunohistochemistry Plasma Cell Dyscrasias, B-Cell Lymphomas, plasma cell dyscrasias
  • Reacts with free kappa chains and those in intact immunoglobulin molecules
  • Restricted expression suggests monoclonality and neoplastic process
2004519 Ki-67, MIB1, by Immunohistochemistry B-cell Lymphomas, T-Cell Lymphomas, Tumor marker, astrocytoma
  • Proliferation index indicator
  • Determines growth fraction
  • Aids in differentiating melanoma from nevus cells for sentinel node biopsy
  • Distinguishes benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors
2003984 Lambda Light Chains by Immunohistochemistry Plasma Cell Dyscrasias, B-Cell Lymphomas
  • Reacts with free lambda chains and those in intact immunoglobulin molecules
  • Restricted expression suggests monoclonality and neoplastic process
2003993 Mast Cell Tryptase by Immunohistochemistry Mast Cell Disease
  • Present in secretory granules of mast cells
  • Present with inflammatory diseases
2004014 Myeloperoxidase (MPO) by Immunohistochemistry Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS), Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML), Tumor Markers MPO:
  • Reacts with myeloperoxidase from granulocytes
  • Aids in differentiating lymphoid leukemias from myeloid leukemias
  • Identifies granulocytic sarcomas
2004061 Octamer Transcription Factor-2 (Oct 2) by Immunohistochemistry B-Cell Lymphomas, Tumor Markers Octamer-binding transcription factor 2:
  • Aids in differentiating Hodgkin lymphomas (typically weak to negative) and B-cell lymphomas
2004067 p21 (Waf1/Cip 1) by Immunohistochemistry Pancreatic Cancer, Melanoma, Bladder Cancer, Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer, HNPCC, Colorectal Cancer, Tumor Markers WAF1/Cip1:
  • Inhibits and blocks cell cycle progression
  • Present in melanomas, pancreatic carcinomas, cervical carcinomas, thymomas, thyroid carcinomas, breast carcinomas, head and neck carcinomas, colon carcinomas, and Hodgkin lymphoma
2004082 Pax-5 by Immunohistochemistry Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML), B-Cell Lymphomas, Hodgkin lymphomas, Tumor Markers
  • Member of the paired box family
  • B-cell-specific activator protein (BSAP)
  • Expressed in pro-, pre-, and mature B-cells, but not in plasma cells
  • Present in pre B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias and classic Hodgkin lymphomas
  • Aids in differential diagnosis of lymphoplasmacytic lymphomas or plasmacytomas
2004085 PD-1 by Immunohistochemistry
  • Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas are the only hematopoietic tumors that are positive for PD1 protein.
  • In tonsil and lymph tissues the protein is expressed on T-cells and some B-cells of the light zone of germinal centers.
2004148 T-cell Intracytoplasmic Antigen (TIA-1) by Immunohistochemistry T/NK-Cell Lymphomas, Tumor Markers T-cell intracytoplasmic antigen:
  • Reacts with 50-60% of CD8 lymphocytes, 10% of CD4 lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, activated CD4 T-cells, activated NK cells, and con A-activated thymocytes
  • Aids in differentiating T-cell leukemias and lymphomas from B-cell leukemias and lymphomas
2004160 Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase (TRAP) by Immunohistochemistry Hairy cell leukemia, B-Cell Lymphomas
  • Found in hairy cells, osteoclasts, activated macrophages, and giant cells
  • Useful as a marker for hairy cell leukemia in bone marrow
2004142 TdT by Immunohistochemistry Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL), B-cell and T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Tumor Markers
  • Used in subtyping of blastic leukemias
  • Positive in all Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL), except Burkitt's and B-cell FAB L-3
  • Positive in Lymphoblastic crisis of Chromic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML-BC-ALL) and Lymphoblastic Lymphoma
  • Some non-lymphocytic leukemias express positivity, but there is less intensity and greater variability