Immunohistochemistry Stains

The ARUP Immunohistochemistry Laboratory performs more than 175 stains on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues/cellblocks. These stains are used to detect the presence, abundance, and localization of specific proteins to aid in determining the direction of differentiation in neoplasms with similar morphology as well as to provide prognostic or therapeutic information, among other applications.

This lab is pathologist oriented, providing a stain and return service only, without interpretation, to our client pathologists to assist in their diagnostic studies. Most stains are returned the next day. The available stains are listed under the Stain and Return Immunohistochemistry tab. If interpretation is needed, please order a consultation.

To order a surgical pathology consultation, please use test code 2013263 Consultation, Surgical Pathology or 2013258 Consultation, Hematopathology. For more information, call (801)581-2507. Please include pertinent clinical history and surgical pathology report.

The Immunohistochemistry Laboratory has a menu of immunohistochemistry tests for which we will provide interpretation by one of our ARUP faculty pathologists. A list of these tests can be found under the Immunohistochemistry Tests tab. The ARUP Immunohistochemistry Laboratory is an NSABP-approved laboratory for the testing of breast markers.
All A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Test # Test Name Test Keywords Test Description
2003433 Pan Cytokeratin (AE1,3) by Immunohistochemistry Glucagonoma, Somatostatinoma, VIPoma, Gastrinoma, Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (NET), Mesothelioma, Testicular Cancer, Tumor Markers, Synovial Sarcoma, Epithelial Sarcoma, Carcinoma, Adenocarcinoma, Tumor Markers, AE1,3
  • Cytokeratin antibody cocktail for acidic and basic cytokeratins
2003463 Anti-Human Epithelial Antigen, Ber-EP4 by Immunohistochemistry Mesothelioma, Lung Cancer, mammary Paget disease, lung adenocarcinomas, trichoepitheliomas, dermatofibromas, basal cell carcinoma, Lung cancer, mesothelioma
  • Epithelial cell membrane glycoprotein
  • Differentiates mesothelial from epithelial cells
  • Aids in identifying mammary Paget disease, lung adenocarcinomas, trichoepitheliomas, dermatofibromas, basal cell carcinomas, and other carcinomas
2003454 Beta-Catenin-1 by Immunohistochemistry Solid-pseudopapillary Neoplasm of Pancreas, Desmoid-type Fibromatosis, Ovarian Cancer, Tumor Markers, Stain and return service only type
  • Binds to cytoplasmic region of e-cadherin molecule
  • Plays a role in cell adhesion, signal transmission, and actin cytoskeleton anchoring
  • Aids in identifying skin, liver, ovary, brain, prostate, and some breast cancers, as well as endometrial, ovarian, and colon carcinomas
2003490 Calretinin by Immunohistochemistry Mesothelioma, Ovarian Cancer, Tumor Markers
  • Calcium-binding protein
  • Mesothelial cells: 89% sensitive, 90% specific for differentiating mesotheliomas from lung adenocarcinomas
  • Aids in identifying mesothelial hyperplasia and epithelioid mesotheliomas
2003824 Carcinoembryonic Antigen, Monoclonal (CEA M) by Immunohistochemistry Mesothelioma, Ovarian Cancer, Colorectal Cancer, Tumor Markers, Cervical Cancer Carcinoembryonic antigen:
  • Specific marker for colon carcinoma
  • Associated with other cancers: breast, stomach, and lung (see CEA polycolonal)
2003827 Carcinoembryonic Antigen, Polyclonal (CEA P) by Immunohistochemistry Hepatocellular Carcinoma, canallicular marker, Pancreatic Cancer, Ovarian Cancer, Lung Cancer, Colorectal Cancer, Tumor Markers CD56e; biliary glycoprotein 1:
  • Reacts with CEA and CEA-like proteins
  • Normal colon: small intestinal crypts and apical surfaces of epithelial cells, small intestinal goblet cell mucin (not intracytoplasmic)
  • Breast: some epithelial cell membranes expressed
  • Liver: biliary tract, hepatocytes are positive
  • Lung adenocarcinomas or mesotheliomas: 85% sensitive, 96% specific for lung adenocarcinoma, diffuse cytoplasmic staining with membrane enhancement
  • Hepatocellular or non-hepatocellular carcinomas: canalicular pattern has 50-90% sensitivity for hepatocellular carcinoma and greater than 95% specificity
  • Present also with lung adenocarcinoma, medullary thyroid carcinoma, colonic adenocarcinoma, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma
2003514 CD5 by Immunohistochemistry T-Cell Lymphomas, B-Cell Lymphomas, Tumor Markers
  • Expressed in T-lymphocytes, thymocytes and subset of B-lymphocytes in lymph nodes
  • Aids in identifying T-cell leukemias, most B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias (B-CLL) and mantle cell lymphomas/T- and B-cell lymphomas
2003821 CDX2 by Immunohistochemistry Intestinal-type sinonasal adenocarcinoma, Colorectal Cancer, Tumor Markers, Lung Cancer
  • Exclusively marks nuclei of colonic epithelial cells and colorectal cancers
  • May be involved in the regulation of proliferation and differentiation in intestinal epithelial cells
  • May be used identifying metastatic colon carcinoma
2003845 Cytokeratin 19 (CK 19) by Immunohistochemistry Thyroid Cancer, Tumor Markers CK 19:
  • Reacts with a large number of epithelial cell types, including many ductal and glandular epithelia
  • Aides in identification of many benign and malignant epithelial lesions
2003848 Cytokeratin 20 (CK 20) by Immunohistochemistry Tumor Markers, Bladder Cancer, Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer, HNPCC, Lung Cancer, Colorectal Cancer, Multiple Carcinomas , Merkel Cell, adenomas, gallbladder, bile duct, gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma, ductal cell adenocarcinomas of the pancreas, mucinous ovarian tumors, transitional cell carcinoma, Pancreatic carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, Mesothelioma Cytokeratin 20:
  • Expressed in intestinal epithelium, gastric foveolar epithelium, some endocrine cells of the upper portions of the pyloric glands, urethelium, and Merkel cells in epidermis
  • Aids in identifying colorectal carcinoma, adenomas of the gallbladder and bile ducts, ductal cell adenocarcinomas of the pancreas, mucinous ovarian tumors, transitional cell carcinomas, and Merkel cell carcinomas of the skin
  • Gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas express CK20 to a lesser degree
2003851 Cytokeratin 5,6 (CK 5,6) by Immunohistochemistry Mesothelioma, Bladder Cancer, Prostate Cancer (PSA), Lung Cancer, Tumor Markers Cytokeratins 5 and 6:
  • Stratified squamous epithelial cytokeratin
  • Aids in diagnosing low differentiated pavement epithelium carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and mesothelioma
  • Differentiates epithelial mesotheliomas (positive-cytoplasmic staining with perinuclear enhancement) from lung adenocarcinoma (89% sensitive, 95% specific)
2003854 Cytokeratin 7 (CK 7) by Immunohistochemistry Gastrinoma, Mesothelioma, Bladder Cancer, Ovarian Cancer, Lung Cancer, Tumor Markers, Multiple Carcinomas, Breast Cancer Cytokeratin 7:
  • Reacts with most glandular and transitional epithelia: breast, lung, bladder, female genital tract (endometrium, fallopian tube), gastrointestinal tract (gallbladder, hepatic ducts, pancreatic ducts), urinary tract, and bile duct
  • Present with subtypes of ovarian, pulmonary, and breast adenocarcinomas, transitional cell carcinomas, tumors of female genital tract (endometrium, fallopian tube), urothelial carcinomas, breast carcinomas, and lung carcinomas
2003493 Cytokeratin 8,18 Low Molecular Weight (CAM 5.2) by Immunohistochemistry Carcinoid Tumors, Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Renal Cell, Rhabdoid tumors, Neuroendocrine, Pancreatic Cancer, Pheochromocytoma, Melanoma, Tumor Markers, Multiple Carcinomas, Colon Cancer, Gastrointestinal Cancer
  • Cytokeratin 8/18 , low molecular weight cytokeratin
  • Hepatocellular and renal cell carcinomas
  • Aids in identifying neuroendocrine carcinoma, melanomas (3%), nuclear inclusions of rhabdoid tumors (composed of tangled intermediate filaments made up of CK8 and vimentin), and mutations associated with idiopathic cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis
2003869 E-Cadherin by Immunohistochemistry Mesothelioma, Breast Cancer, Tumor Markers Cellular adhesion molecule:
  • Loss associated with invasive carcinoma
  • Differentiates LCIS from DCIS in indeterminate breast carcinoma
  • Reduced expression in invasive bladder cancer and ductal carcinoma
  • No expression in lobular carcinoma and LCIS
2003872 Epithelial Membrane Antigen (EMA) by Immunohistochemistry Adenocarcinoma, anaplastic large cell lymphomas, epitheloid sarcomas, Pagets’ disease, plasmacytomas, Pancreatic tumors, Tumor Markers Epithelial membrane antigen:
  • Prognostic
  • Expressed by almost all glandular and ductal epithelial cells including breast and pancreas, activated T-cells, monocytes, some B-cells, follicular dendritic cells, and perineurial cells
  • Aids in identifying most adenocarcinomas, anaplastic large cell lymphomas, epithelioid sarcomas, meningiomas, some mesotheliomas, myelomas, Paget disease, plasmacytomas, squamous cell tumors, and metastatic carcinomas
  • Associated with invasion in pancreatic tumors
2003875 Epithelial-related Antigen, MOC-31 by Immunohistochemistry Mesothelioma, Head and Neck Cancer, Lung Cancer adenocarcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, adenomas, small cell lung cancers, carcinoids, adenocystic carcinomas, and carcinosarcomas Epithelial related antigen (MOC-31):
  • Aids in identifying adenocarcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, adenomas, small cell lung cancers, carcinoids, adenocystic carcinomas, and carcinosarcomas
2003978 Keratin 903 (K903) High Molecular Weight by Immunohistochemistry Mesothelioma, Bladder Cancer, Prostate Cancer, Breast Cancer High molecular weight keratin, 34βE12:
  • Specific to prostate basal cells
  • Rules out prostatic adenocarcinoma
  • High grade PIN demonstrates K 903 staining
  • Identifies squamous cell carcinomas, urothelial carcinomas, adenocarcinomas of ductal origin (breast, pancreas), and small benign acinar lesions of the prostate
  • Aids in differentiating mesotheliomas from lung adenocarcinomas
2004166 Thyroid Transcription Factor (TTF-1) by Immunohistochemistry Thyroid Cancer, Lung Cancer, Tumor Markers, sarcoma, mesothelioma, neuroendrocrine Thyroid transcription factor-1:
  • Expressed in lung and thyroid epithelial cells
  • Present in pulmonary small cell carcinomas, some pulmonary non-small cell carcinomas, papillary carcinomas, follicular carcinomas and goiter, thyroid medullary carcinomas, and thyroid papillary carcinomas
  • Aids in differentiating pulmonary adenocarcinomas from breast carcinomas
2004184 Wilms Tumor (WT1), N-terminus by Immunohistochemistry AML, Mesothelioma, Ovarian Cancer, desmoplastic round-cell tumor
  • Aids in identifying Wilms' tumor, mesotheliomas